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Adélie

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• Ainley DG, Demaster DP (1980) Survival and mortality in a population of Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae. Ecology 61:522–530.
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• Meyer-Rochow VB, Gal J (2003) Pressures produced when penguins pooh-calculations on avian dafaecation. Polar Biology 27:56-58.
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• Penney RL (1967) Molt in the Adélie Penguin. Auk 84: 61-71.
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• Rombolá E, Marschoff E, Coria N (2003) Comparative study of the effects of the late pack-ice break-off on chinstrap and Adélie penguins’ diet and reproductive success at Laurie
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Marine Biology 156:1633–1645
• Vleck CM, Vleck D (2002) Physiological Condition and Reproductive Consequences in Adélie Penguins. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42:76–83.
• Wilson RP (1989) Diving depths of Gentoo Pygoscelis papua and Adélie P.adeliae Penguins at Esperanza Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. An International Journal of Marine
Ornithology 17:1-8.
• Watanuki Y, Kato A, Sato K, Niizuma Y, Bost CA, Le Maho Y, Naito Y (2002) Parental mass change and food provisioning in Adélie penguins rearing chicks in colonies with
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• Watanuki Y, Kato A, Naito Y, Robertson G, Robinson S (1997) Diving and foraging behaviour of Adélie penguins in areas with and without fast sea-ice. Polar Biology 17:296-
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• Yoda K, Ropert-Coudert Y (2007) Temporal changes in activity budgets of chick-rearing Adélie Penguins. Marine Biology 151:1951-1957.

African

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• Adams NJ, Brown CR (1990) Energetics of molt in penguins. In: Davis LS, Darby JT (eds). Penguin Biology. Academic Press, San Diego.
• Boersma D, Banfill J. “African Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Cooper J (977) Energetic requirements for growth of the Jackass Penguin. African Zoology 12:20-23.
• Cordes I, Crawford RJM, Williams AJ, Dyer BM (1999) Decrease of African Penguins at the Possession Island Group, 1956-1995: contrasting trends for colonial and solitary
breeders. Marine Ornithology 27:129-138.
• Crawford RJM (2007) Food, Fishing and Seabirds in the Benguela Upwelling System. Journal of Ornithology 48:253-260.
• Crawford RJM, Barham PJ, Underhill LG, Shannon LJ, Coetzee JC, Dyer BM, Leshoro TM, Upfold L (2006) The influence of food availability on breeding success of African
penguins Spheniscus demersus at Robben Island, South Africa. Biological Conservation 132: 119 -125.
• Crawford RJM, Boonstra HGVD (1994) Counts of moulting and breeding Jackass Penguins Spheniscus demersus: a comparison at Robben Island, 1988-1993. Marine
Ornithology 22: 213-219.
• Crawford RJM, Hemming M, Kemper J, Klages NTW, Randall RM, Underhill LG, Venter AD, Ward VL, Wolfaardt AC (2006)Molt of the African penguin, Spheniscus demersus,
in relation to its breeding season and food availability. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52: 444–447.
• Crawford RJM, Shannon LJ, PA Whittington (1999) Population dynamics of the African Penguin Spheniscus demersus at Robben Island, South Africa. Marine Ornithology 27:
139–147.
• Crawford RJM, Underhill LG, Upfold L, Dyer BM (2007) AN altered carryin capacity of the Benguela upwelling ecosystem for African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus). ICES
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• Cunninghan GB, Strauss V, Ryan PG (2008) African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey related odour. Journal of Experimental Biology
211:3123-3127.
• Hockey PAR, Dean WRJ, Ryan PG (eds) 2005. Roberts – Birds of Southern Africa, V IIth ed. The Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town.
• Kemper J, Roux JP, Underhill LG (2008) Effect of Age and Breeding Status on Molt Phenology of Adult African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in Namibia. The Auk 125:809-
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• La Cock GD, Hanel C (1987) Survival of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dyer Island, Southern Cape, South Africa, Journal of Field Ornithology 58(3):284-287.
• Marion, R. Penguins A Worldwide Guide. 1st ed. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 1999. 103-105. Print.
• Nimon AJ, Schroter RC, Oxenham KC (1996) Artificial Eggs: Measuring Heart Rate and Effects of Disturbance in Nesting Penguins. Physiology & Behavior 60:1019-1022.
• Owre OT (1987) Untitled. The Wilson Bulletin 99:298-301.
• Peterson SL, Ryan PG, Gremillet D (2006) Is food availability limiting African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders? A comparison of foraging effort at mainland and
island colonies. Ibis 48:14-26.
• Randall RM (1983) Biology of the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus demersus (L.) at St. Croix Island, South Africa. Unpubl. PhD Thesis, Univ. Port Elizabeth.
• Randall RM (1989) Jackass Penguins. In: Payne A.I.L., Crawford RJM (Eds). Oceans of Life off Southern Africa, pp. 244-256. Vlaeberg Publishers, Cape Town.
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• Seddon PJ, van Heezik Y (1991) Effects of Hatching Order, Sibling Asymmetries, and Nest Site on Survival Analysis of Jackass Penguin Chicks. Auk 108: 548-555.
• Seddon PJ, van Heezik Y (1993) Parent-Offspring Recognition in the Jackass Penguin. Journal of Field Ornithology 64:27-31.
• Seddon PJ, van Heezik Y, Cooper J (1991) Observations of Within-Colony Breeding Synchrony in Jackass Penguins. The Wilson Bulletin 103:480-485.
• Thumser NN, Ficken MS (1998) A comparison of vocal repertoires of captive Spheniscus penguins. Marine Ornithology 26:41-48.
• Whittington PA (1999) The contribution made by cleaning oiled African Penguins Spheniscuz demersus to population dynamics and conservation of the species. Marine
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• Whittington PA, Dyer BM, Klages NTW (2000) Maximum Longevities of African Penguins Spheniscus Demersus Based on Banding Records. Marine Ornithology 28:81-82.
• Whittington PA, Klages N, Crawford R, Wolfarrdt A, Kemper J (2005) Age at first breeding of the African Penguin. Ostrich 76:14-20.
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• Williams AJ, Cooper J (1984) Aspects of the breeding biology of the Jack ass Penguin Spheniscus demersus. Proceedings of the Fifth Pan-African Ornithological Congress. South
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• Wilson RP (1985) The Jackass Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) as a pelagic predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series 25: 219-227.
• Wilson RP, Grémillet D (1996) Body Temperatures of Free-Living African Penguins (Spheniscus Demersus) and Bank Cormorants (Palacrocorax Neglectus). The Journal of
Experimental Biology 199: 2215–2223.
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Chinstrap

• Amat JA, Carrascal LM, Moreno J (1996) Nest Defence by Chinstrap Penguins Pygoscelis antarctica in relation to offspring number and age. Journal of Avian Biology 27:177-
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• Amat JA, Viñuela J, Ferrer M (1993) Sexing Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica) by Morphological Measurements. Colonial Waterbirds 16: 213-215.
• AMLR (2007) AMLR 2006/2007 Field Season Report. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Lipsky pp. 1-161.
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• Barbosa A, Merino S, Benzal J, Martínez J, García-Fraile S (2007) Population variability in heat shock proteins among three Antarctic penguin species. Polar Biology 30:1239-
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• Barbosa A, Moreno J, Potti J, Merino S (1997) Breeding group size, nest position and breeding success in the chinstrap penguin. Polar Biology 18:410-414.
• Boersma D, Gentry C. “Chinstrap Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
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• Bustamante J, Márquez R (1996) Vocalizations of the Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica. Colonial Waterbirds 19:101-110.
• Croll DA, Demer DA, Hewitt RP, Jansen JK, Goebel ME, Tershy BR (2005) Effects of variability in prey abundance on reproduction and foraging in chinstrap penguins
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• Croll DA, Jansen JK, Goebel ME, Boveng PL, Bengtson JL (1996) Foraging Behavior and Reproductive Success in Chinstrap Penguins: The Effects of Transmitter Attachment.
Journal of Field Ornithology 67:1-9.
• Croll DA, Osmek SD, Bengston JL (1991) An Effect of Instrument Attachment on Foraging Trip Duration in Chinstrap Penguins. The Condor 93:777-779.
• Croxall JP (1982) Energy Costs of Incubation and Moult in Petrels and Penguins. Journal or Animal Ecology 51:177-194.
• Culik BM, Wilson RP (1994) Underwater swimming at low energetic cost by Pygoscelid penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 197:65-78.
• Fargallo JA, Dávila JA, Potti J, de León A, Polo V (2004) Nest size and hatchling sex ratio chinstrap penguins. Polar Biology 27:339-343.
• Fargallo JA, Polo V, de Neve L, Martín J, Dávila JA, Soler M (2006) Hatching order and size-dependent mortality in relation to brood sex ratio composition in chinstrap penguins.
Behavioral Ecology 17: 772-778.
• Forcada J, Trathan PN, Reid K, Murphy EJ, Croxall JP (2006) Contrasting population changes in sympatric penguin species in association with climate warming. Global Change
Biology 12:411-423.
• Golombek DA, Calcagno JA, Luquet CM (1991) Circadian Activity Rhythm of the Chinstrap Penguin of Isla Media Luna, South Shetland Islands, Argentine Antarctica. Journal of
Field Ornithology 62:293-298.
• Hinke JT, Salwicka K, Trivelpiece SG, Watters GM, Trivelpiece WZ (2007) Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver. Oecologia
153:645-855.
• Jansen JK, Russell RW, Meyer WR (2002) Seasonal Shifts in the Provisioning Behavior of Chinstrap Penguins, Pygoscelis antartica. Oecologia 131:306-318.
• Lishman GS, Croxall JP (1983) Diving depths of Chinstrap Penguins Pygoscelis antarctica. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 61:21-25.
• Lynnes AS, Reid K, Croxall JP (2004) Diet and reproductive success of Adélie and chinstrap penguins: linking response of predators to prey population dynamics. Polar Biology
27: 544-554.
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• Martín J, de Neve L, Fargallo JA, Polo V, Soler M (2004) Factors affecting the escape behavior of juvenile chinstrap penguins, Pygoscelis antarctica, in response to human
disturbance. Polar Biology 27:775-781.
• Martín J, de Neve L, Polo V, Fargallo JA, Soler M (2006) Health-dependent vulnerability to predation affects escape responses of unguarded chinstrap penguin chicks. Behavioral
Ecology and Sociobiology 60:778-784.
• Metcheva R, Yurukova L, Teodorova S, Nikolova E (2006) The penguin feathers as bioindicator of Antarctica environmental state. Science of the Total Environment 362:259-265.
• Meyer WR, Bengston JL, Jansen JK, Russell RW (1997) Relationships between brood size and parental performance in chinstrap penguins during the chick guard phase. Polar
Biology 17:228-234.
• Meyer-Rochow VB, Gal J (2003) Pressures produced when penguins pooh-calculations on avian dafaecation. Polar Biology 27:56-58.
• Miller AK, Trivelpiece (2008) Chinstrap penguins alter foraging and diving behavior in response to the size of their principle prey, Antarctic krill. Marine Biology 154:201-208.
• Mínguez E, Belliure J, Ferrer M (2001) Bill Size in Relation to Position in the Colony in the Chinstrap Penguin. Waterbirds: The International Journal of Waterbird Biology 24:34-
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• Mínguez E, Fargallo JA, de León A, Moreno J, Moreno E (1998) Age-Related Variations in Bill Size of Chinstrap Penguins. Colonial Waterbirds 21:66-68.
• Moreno J, Barbosa A, de León A, Fargallo JA (1999) Phenotypic selection on morphology at independence in the Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica. Journal of
Evolutionary Biology 12:507-513.
• Moreno J, Boto L, Fargallo JA, de León A, Potti J (2000) Absence of extra-pair fertilization in the Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antartica. Journal of Avian Biology 31:580-583.
• Moreno J, de León A, Fargallo JA, Moreno E (1998) Breeding Time, Health and Immune Response in the Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antartica. Oecologia 115:312-319.
• Moreno J, Sanz JJ (1996) Field Metabolic Rates of Breeding Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis Antarctica) Physiological Zoology 69:586-598.
• Moreno J, Viñuela J, Belliure J, Ferrer M (1998) Effect of Brood Size on growth in the Chinstrap Penguin: A field experiment. Journal of Field Ornithology 69:269-275.
• Mori Y (1997) Dive bout organization in the Chinstrap penguin at Seal Island, Antarctica. Journal of Ethology 15: 9-15
• Mori Y (2001) Individual Diving Behavior, Food Availability and Chick Growth Rates in Chinstrap Penguins. Waterbirds: The International Journal of Waterbird Biology 24:443-
445.
• Reidarson TH, McBain JF, Denton D (1999) The Use of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate to Induce Molting in Chinstrap Penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica). Journal of Zoo and
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• Penteriani V, Viñuela J, Belliure J, Bustamante J, Ferrer M (2003) Causal and functional correlates of brood amalgamation in the chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica: parental
decision and adult aggressiveness. Polar Biology 26:538-544.
• Rombolá E, Marschoff E, Coria N (2006) Interannual study of Chinstrap penguin’s diet and reproductive success at Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands, Antarctica. Polar Biology
29:502-509.
• Sander M, Balbão TC, Costa ES, dos Santos CR, Petry MV (2006) Decline of the breeding population of Pygoscelis Antarctica and Pygoscelis adeliae on Penguin Island, South
Shetland, Antarctica. Polar Biology 30:651-654.
• Sander M, Balbão TC, Polito MJ, Costa ES, Carneiro APB (2007) Recent decrease in chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) populations of two of Admirality Bay’s islets on
King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Polar Biology 30:659-661.
• Takahashi A, Dunn MJ, Trathan PN, Croxall JP, Wilson RP, Sato K, Naito Y (2004) Krill-feeding behaviour in a Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis Antarctica compared with fisheating
in Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus: a pilot study. Marine Ornithology 32:47-54.
• Trivelpiece WZ, Bengtson JL, Trivelpiece SG, Volkman NJ (1986) Foraging Behavior of Gentoo and Chinstrap Penguins as Determined by New Radiotelemetry Techniques. The
Auk 103: 777-781.
• Trivelpiece WZ, Buckelew S, Reiss C, Trivelpiece SG (2007) The winter distribution of chinstrap penguins from two breeding sites in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.
Polar Biology 30:1231-1237.
• Trivelpiece W, Volkman NJ (1979) Nest-Site Competition between Adélie and Chinstrap Penguins: An Ecological Interpretation. The Auk 96:675-681.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 178-185. Print.
• Wilson RP, Peters G (1999) Foraging behaviour of the Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica at Ardley Island, Antarctica. Marine Ornithology 27: 69-79
• Woehler EJ, Croxall JP (1997) The status and trends of Antarctic and sub0Antarctic seabirds. Marine Ornithology 25:43-66.

Emperor

• Ancel A, Beaulieu M, Le Maho Y, Gilbert C (2009) Emperor Penguin Mates: Keeping Together in the Crowd. Proceedings of the Royal Society 276:2163-2169.
• Angelier F, Barbraud C, Lormée H, Prud’homme F, Chastel O (2006) Kidnapping of chicks in emperor penguins: a hormonal by-product?. Journal of Experimental Biology
209:1413-1420.
• Barber-Meyer SM, Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ (2007) Estimation the relative abundance of emperor penguins at inaccessible colonies using satellite imagery. Polar Biology
30:1565-1570.
• Boersma D, Richards D. “Emperor Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Bried J, Pontier D, Jouventin P (2003) Mate fidelity in monogamous birds: a re-examination of the Procellariiformes. Animal Behaviour 65:235-246.
• Burns JM, Kooyman GL (2001) Habitat Use by Weddell Seals and Emperor Penguins Foraging in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. American Zoology 41:90-98.
• Burger J, Gochfeld M (2007) Responses of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) to encounters with ecotourists while commuting to and from their Breeding Colony. Polar
Biology 30:1303-1313.
• Cherel Y (2008) Isotopic niches of emperor and Adélie penguins in Adélie Land, Antarctica. Marine Biology 154:813-821.
• Cherel Y, Kooyman G (1998) Food of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. Marine Biology 130:335-344.
• Gilbert C, Blanc S, Le Maho Y, Ancel A (2008) Review: Energy Saving Processess in Huddling Emperor Penguins: From Experiments to Theory. Journal of Experimental
Biology 211:1-8.
• Gilbert C, Le Maho Y, Perret M, Ancel A (2006) Body temperature changed induced by huddling in breeding male emperor penguins. The American Journal of Physiology –
Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 292:176-185.
• Gilbert C, Robertson G, Le Maho Y, Ancel A (2008) How do weather conditions affect the huddling behaviour of emperor penguins?. Polar Biology 31:163-169.
• Jenouvrier S, Caswell H, Barbraud C, Holland M, Strœve J, Weimerskirch H (2009) Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin
population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America 106:1844-1847
• Jouventin P, Barbraud C, Rubin M (1995) Adoption in the emperor penguin, Apenodytes forsteri. Animal Behavior 50:1023-1029.
• Jouventin P, McGraw KJ, Morel M, Célerier (2007) Dietary Carotenoid Supplementation Affects Orange Beak but not Foot Coloration in Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua.
Waterbirds 30:573-578.
• Jouventin P, Nolan PM, Örnborg J, Dobson FS (2005) Ultraviolet Beak Spots in King and Emperor Penguins. The Condor 107:144-150.
• Kirkwood R, Robertson G (1997) The Foraging Ecology of Female Emperor Penguins in Winter. Ecological Monographs 67:155-176.
• Kooyman GL, Mullins JL (1990) Ross Sea emperor penguin breeding populations estimated by aerial photography. In: Kerry KR, Hempel G (eds) Antarctic ecosystems.
Ecological change and conservation. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 169-176.
• Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ (2008) The initial journey of juvenile emperor penguins. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17:37-43
• Kooyman GL, Siniff DB, Stirling I, Bengston JL (2004) Moult habitat, pre- and post-moult diet and post-moult travel of Ross Sea emperor penguins. Marine Ecology Progress
Series 267:281-290.
• Meir JU, Stockard TK, Williams CL, Ponganis KV, Ponganis PJ (2008) Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins. Journal of Experimental
Biology 211:1169-1179
• St. Clair CC, Boyce MS (2009) Icy insights from emperor penguins. Proceedings of the Nation Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:1691-1692.
• Ponganis PJ, Costello ML, Starke LN, Mathieu-Costello O, Kooyman GL (1997) Structural and biochemical characteristics of locomotory muscles of emperor penguins,
Aptenodytes forsteri. Respiration Physiology 109:73-80
• Ponganis PJ, Starke LN, Horning M, Kooyman GL (1999) Development of Diving Capacity in Emperor Penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 202:781-786.
• Ponganis PJ, Stockard TK, Meir JU, Williams CL, Ponganis KV, van Dam RP, Howard R (2007) Returning on empty: extreme blood O2 depletion underlies dive capacity of
emperor penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 4279-4285.
• Robertson G, Williams R, Green K, RobertsonL (1994) Diet composition of Emperor Penguin chicks Aptenodytes forsteri at two Mawson Coast colonies, Antarctica. Ibis 136:19-
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• Sato K, Ponganis PJ Habara Y, Naito Y (2005) Emperor Penguins adjust swim speed according to the above-water height of ice holes through which they exit. Journal of
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• Tamburrini M, Condò SG, di Prisco G, Giardina B (1994) Adaption to Extreme Environments: Structure-Function Relationships in Emperor Penguin Haemoglobin. Journal of
Molecular Biology 237:615-621.
• van Dam RP, Ponganis PJ, Ponganis KV, Levenson DH, Marshall G (2002) Stroke frequencies of emperor penguins diving under sea ice. Journal of Experimental Biology
205:3769-3774.
• Wienecke B, Kirkwood R, Robertson G (2004) Pre-moult foraging trips and moult locations of Emperor penguins at the Mawson Coast. Polar Biology 27:83-91.
• Wienecke B, Robertson G, Kirkwood R, Lawton K (2007) Extreme dives by free-ranging emperor penguins. Polar Biology 30: 133-142.
• Zimmer I, Wilson RP, Gilbert C, Beaulieu M, Ancel A, Plötz J (2008) Foraging movements of emperor penguins at Point Géologie, Antarctica. Polar Biology 31:229-243.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 152-160. Print.

Erect-Crested
• Boersma D. “Erect-Crested Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Richdale LE (1941) The Erect-crested Penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) Buller. Emu 41:25-53.
• Warham J (1972) Aspects of the biology of the Erect-crested penguin Eudyptes sclateri. Ardea 60:145-184.
• Warham J, Bell BD (1979) The birds of Antipodes Island, New Zealand. Notornis 26:121-169.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 206-211. Print.
• Williams TD, Rodwell S (1992) Annual Variation in Return Rate, Mate and Nest-Site Fidelity in Breeding Gentoo and Macaroni Penguins. The Condor 94:636-645.

>Fiordland-Crested
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• Croxall JP (1982) Energy Costs of Incubation and Moult in Petrels and Penguins. Journal of Animal Ecology 51:177-194.
• Croxall JP (1995) Sexual Dimorphism in Seabirds. Oikos 73:399-403.
• Desser SS, Allison FB (1979) Aspects of the Sporogonic Development of Leucocytozoon tawaki of the Fiordland Crested Penguin in Its Primary Vector, Austrosimulium
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• Dubois F, Cézilly F, Pagel M (1998) Mate Fidelity and Coloniality in Waterbirds: A Comparative Analysis. Oecologia 116:433-440.
• Grau CR (1982) Egg Formation in Fiordland Crested Penguins (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus). Condor 84:172-177.
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• McLean IG (2000) Breeding success, brood reduction and the timing of breeding in the Fiordland crested penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus). Notornis 47:57-60.
• McLean IG, Kayes SD (2000) Genetic Monogamy Mirrors Social Monogamy in the Fiordland Crested Penguin
• Murie JO, David LS, McLean IG (1991) Identifying the sex of Fiordland crested penguins by morphometric characters. Notornis 38:233-238.
• St. Clair CC (1992) Incubation Behavior, Brood Patch Formation and Obligate Brood Reduction in Fiordland Crested Penguins. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 31:409-416.
• St. Clair CC, McLean I, Murie JO, Phillipson SM, Studholme BJS (1999) Fidelity to nest site and mate in Fiordland Crested Penguins Eudyptes pachyrhynchus. Marine
Ornithology 27:37-41.
• St. Clair CC, St. Clair RC (1992) Weka predation on eggs and chicks of Fiordland crested penguins. Notornis 39:60-63
• Studholme BJS, Russ RB, McLean IG (1994) The Fiordland Crested Penguin Survey: Stage IV, Stewart and Offshore Islands and Solander Island. Notornis 41:133-143.
• van Heezik YM (1989) Diet of the Fiordland Crested Penguin during the post-guard phase of chick growth. Notoris 36:151-156.
• Warham J (1974) The Fiordland Crested Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus. The Ibis 116: 1-27.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 195-200. Print.

Galapagos
• Beck RH (1904) Bird Life among the Galapagos Islands. The Condor 6:5-11.
• Boersma D. “Galapagos Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Boersma PD (1976) An ecological and behavioral study of the Galápagos penguin. Living Bird 15:43-93.
• Boersma PD (1974) The Galapagos Penguin: A Study of Adaptations for Life in an Unpredictable Enviornment. Dissertation, Ohio State University.
• Boersma PD (1978) Breeding Patterns of the Galápagos Penguins as an Indicator of Oceanographic Conditions. Science 200:1481-1483.
• Boersma PD (1998) Population trends of the Galápagos Penguin: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña. The Condor 100:245-253.
• Boersma PD (2000) Penguins as Marine Sentinels. BioScience 58: 597-607.
• Boersma PD, Vargas H, Merlen G (2005) Living Laboratory in Peril. Science 308:925
• Harris MP (1973) The Galápagos Avifauna. The Condor 75:265-278.
• Marion, R. Penguins A Worldwide Guide. 1st ed. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 1999. 109-112. Print.
• Mills K (1998) Multispecies Seabird Feeding Flocks in the Galápagos Islands. The Condor 100:277-285.
• Mills K (2000) Diving behaviour of two Galápagos Penguins Spheniscus mendiculus. Marine Ornithology 28:75-79.
• Nims BD, Vargas FH, Merkel J, Parker PG (2008) Low genetic diversity and lack of population structure in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus).
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• Palacios DM (2004) Seasonal patterns of sea-surface temperature and ocean color around the Galápagos: regional and local influences. Deep-Sea Res II 51:43-57.
• Rosenberg DK, Valle CA, Coulter MC, Harcourt SA (1990) Monitoring Galapagos Penguins and Flightless Cormorants in the Galapagos Islands. The Wilson Bulletin 102:525-
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• Schreer JF, Kovacs KM, Hines RHO (2001) Comparative Diving Patterns of Pinnipeds and Seabirds. Ecological Monographs 71:137-162.
• Steinfurth A, Vargas FH, Wilson RP, Spindler M, Macdonald DW (2008) Space use by foraging Galápagos penguins during chick rearing. Endangered Species Research 4:105-
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• Townsend CH (1927) The Galapagos Penguin in Captivity. The Auk 44:509-512.
• Valle CA, Coulter MC (1987) Present Status of the Flightless Cormorant, Galapagos Penguin and Greater Flamingo Populations in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, after the 1982-
83 El Niño. The Condor 89:276-281.
• Vargas FH, Harrison S, Rea S, Macdonald DW (2006) Biological effects of El Niño on the Galapagos penguin. Biological Conservation 127:107-114.
• Vargas FH, Lacy RC, Johnson PJ, Steinfurth A, Crawford RJM, Boersma PD, Macdonald DW (2007) Biological Conservation 137:138-148.
• Vargas H, Lougheed C, Snell H (2005) Population size and trends of the Galápagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus. Ibis 147:367-374.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 258-263. Print.

Gentoo
• Adams NJ, Brown CR (1983) Diving depths of the Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua). Condor 85: 503-504.
• Barbosa A, Merino S, Benzal J, Martínez J, García-Fraile S (2007) Population variability in heat shock proteins among three Antarctic penguin species. Polar Biology 30:1239-
1244.
• Bevan RM, Butler PJ, Woakes AJ, Boyd IL (2002) The energetic of Gentoo Penguins, Pygoscelis papua, during the breeding season. Functional Ecology 16:175-190.
• Bingham M (1998) The distribution, Abundance and Population Trends of Gentoo, Rockhopper and King Penguins at the Falkland Islands. ORYX 32:223-232.
• Boersma D. “Gentoo Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Bost CA, Pütz K, Lage J (1994) Maximum diving depth and diving patterns of the gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua at the Crozet Islands. Marine Ornithology 22: 237-244.
• Clausen A, Arkhipkin AI, Laptikhovsky VV, Huin N (2005) What is out there: diversity in feeding of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) around the Falkland Islands (Southwest
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• Clausen AP, Pütz K (2002) Recent trends in diet composition and productivity of Gentoo, Magellanic and Rockhopper Penguins in the Falkland Islands. Aquatic Conservation:
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• Clausen AP, Pütz K (2003) Winter diet and foraging range of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) from Kidney Cove, Falkland Islands. Polar Biology 26:32-40.
• Cobley ND, Shears JR (1999) Breeding performance of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) at a colony exposed to high levels of human disturbance. Polar Biology 21: 355-360.
• Copeland KE (2008) Concerted Small-Group Foraging Behavior in Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua. Marine Ornithology 36:193-194.
• Coria N, Libertelli M, Casaux R, Darrieu C (2000) Inter-Annual Variation in the Autumn Diet of the Gentoo Penguin at Laurie Island, Antarctica. The International Journal of
Waterbird Biology 23:511-517.
• Crosbie K (1999) Interactions between skuaas Catharacta sp. And Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua in relation to tourist activities at Cuverville Island, Antarctic Peninsula.
Marine Ornithology 27:195-197.
• Cuervo JJ, Palacios MJ, Barbosa A (2009) Beak colouration as a possible sexual ornament in gentoo penguins: sexual dichromatism and relationship to body condition. Polar
Biology 32:1305-1314.
• Culik B, Wilson R, Bannasch R (1994) Underwater swimming at low energetic cost by Pygoscelid penguins. Journal of Experimental Biology 197: 65-78.
• Davis RW, Croxall JP, O’Connell MJ (1989) The Reproductive Energetics of Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and Macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus) Penguins at South Georgia.
Journal of Animal Ecology 58:59-74.
• Ghys MI, Rey AR, Schiavini A (2008) Population Trend and Breeding Biology of Gentoo Penguin in Martillo Island, Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Waterbirds 31:625-631.
• Hinke JT, Salwicka K, Trivelpiece SG, Watters GM, Trivelpiece WZ (2007) Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver. Oecologia
153:645-855.
• Holmes ND (2007) Comparing King, Gentoo, and Royal Penguin Responses to Pedestrian Visitation. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2575-2582.
• Holmes ND, Giese M, Achurch H, Robinson S, Kriwoken LK (2006) Behaviour and breeding success of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua in areas of low and high human
activity. Polar Biology 29:399-412.
• Lescroël A, Bajzak C, Bost CA (2009) Breeding ecology of the gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua at Kerguelen Archipelago. Polar Biology 32:1495-1505.
• Lescroël A, Ridoux V, Bost CA (2004) Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) at Kerguelen Islands. Polar Biology 27:206-216.
• Lynch, H.J. 2011. The gentoo penguin in P.D. Boersma and P.G. Borboroglu (eds) Biology and Conservation of the World’s Penguins. University of Washington Press, Seattle,
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• Metcheva R, Bezrukov V, Teodorova SE, Yankov Y (2008) “Yellow Spot”-A New Trait of Gentoo Penguins Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii in Antarctica. Marine Ornithology
36:47-51.
• Meyer-Rochow VB, Shimoyama A (2008) UV-reflecting and absorbing body regions in gentoo and king penguins: Can they really be used by the penguins as signals for
conspecific recognition?. Polar Biology 31:557-560.
• Nimon AJ, Schroter RC, Oxenham RKC (1996) Artificial Eggs: Measuring Heart Rate and Effects of Disturbance in Nesting Penguins. Physiology and Behavior 60:1019-1022.
• Otley HM, Clausen AP, Christe, DJ, Pütz K (2005) Aspects of the breeding biology of the Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua at Volunteer Beach, Falkland Islands, 2001/01.
Marine Ornithology 33:167-171.
• Peterson SL, Branch GM, Ainley DG, Boersma PD, Cooper J, Woehler E (2005) Is Flipper Banding of Penguins a Problem?. Marine Ornithology 33:75-79.
• Polito MJ, Trivelpiece WZ (2008) Transition to independence and evidence of extended parental care in the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua). Marine Biology 154:231-240.
• Pütz K, Ingham J, Smith JG, Croxall JP (2001) Population trends, breeding success and diet composition of gentoo Pygoscelis papua, Magellanic Spheniscus magellanicusand
Rockhopper Eudyptes chrysocome penguins in the Falkland Islands. Polar Biology 24:793-807.
• Quintana RD, Cirelli V (2000) Breeding dynamics of a Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua population at Cierva Point, Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Ornithology 28:29-35.
• Reid K (1995) Oiled Penguins Observed at Bird Island, South Georgia. Marine Ornithology 23:53-57.
• Renner M, Valencia J, Davis LS, Saez D, Cifuentes O (1998) Sexing of Adult Gentoo Penguins in Antarctica Using Morpohmetrics. Colonial Waterbirds 21:444-449.
• Stonehouse B (1970) Geographic Variation in Gentoo Penguins. Ibis 112:52-57.
• Takahashi A, Kokubun N, Mori Y, Shin HC (2008) Krill-feeding behaviour of gentoo penguins as shown by animal-borne camera loggers. Polar Biology 31:1291-1294.
• Tanton JL, Reid K, Croxall JP, Trathan PN (2004) Winter distribution and behavior of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua at South Georgia. Polar Biology 27:299-303.
• Trivelpiece WZ, Bengtson JL, Trivelpiece SG, Volkman NJ (1986) Foraging Behavior of Gentoo and Chinstrap Penguins as Determined by New Radiotelemetry Techniques. The
Auk 103: 777-781.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 160-169. Print.
• Wilson RP (1989) Diving depths of Gentoo Pygoscelis papua and Adélie P.adeliae Penguins at Esperanza Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. An International Journal of Marine
Ornithology 17:1-8.
• Wilson RP, Alvarrez B, Latorre L, Adelung D, Culik B, Bannasch R (1998) The movements of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua from Ardley Island, Antarctica. Polar Biology
19:407-413.

Humboldt
• Araya B (1988) Status of the Humboldt Penguin in Chile following the 1982-83. El Niño Spheniscus Penguin Newsletter 1:8-10.
• BirdLife International (2011) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/02/2011.
• Boersma D. “Humboldt Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Bunting EM, Madi NA, Cox S, Martin-Jimenez T, Fox H, Kollias GV (2009) Evaluation of Oral Itraconazole Administration in Captive Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus
humboldti). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40:508-518.
• Cooper J Williams AJ, Britton PL (1984) Distribution , population sizes and conservation of breeding seabirds in the Afrotropical region. In Status and conservation of the world’s
seabirds, ICBP Technical Publication No. 2, (ed. JP Croxall, PGH Evans and RW Schreiber). pp.403-419. ICBP, Cambridge.
• Costantini V, Guaricci AC, Laricchiuta P, Rausa F, Lacalandra GM (2008) DNA sexing in Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) from feather samples. Animal
Reproduction Science 106:162-167.
• Culik BM, Luna-Jorquera G (1997) Satellite tracking of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern Chile. Marine Biology 128:547-556.
• Culik BM, Luna-Jorquera G (1997) The Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti:a migratory bird?. Journal für Ornithologie 138:325-330.
• Culik BM, Hennicke J, Martin T (2000) Humboldt Penguins Outmaneuvering El Niño. The Journal of Experimental Biology 203:2311-2322.
• Ellenberg U, Mattern T, Seddon PJ, Jorquera GL (2006) Physiological and reproductive consequences of human disturbance in Humboldt penguins: The need for species-specific
visitor management. Biological Conservation 133:95-106.
• Hall HD (Director). United States of America. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Five Penguin Species Under the
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• Herling C, Culik BM, Henniche JC (2005) Diet of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile. Marine Biology 147:13-25.
• Jouventin P, Couchoux C, Dobson FS (2009) UV signals in penguins. Polar Biology 31:513-414.
• Luna-Jorquera G, Culik BM (1999) Diving Behaviour of Humboldt Penguins Spheniscus humboldti in northern Chile. Marine Ornithology 27:67-76.
• Luna-Jorquera G, Culik BM, Aguilar R (1996) Capturing Humboldt Penguins Spheniscus humboldti with the use of an anaesthetic. Marine Ornithology 24:47-50.
• Mattern T, Ellenburg U, Luna-Jorquera G, Davis LS (2004) Humboldt Penguin Census on Isla Chañaral Chile: Recent Increase pr Past Underestimate of Penguin Numbers?.
Waterbirds 27:368-376.
• Paredes R, Zavalaga CB (2001) Nesting sites and nest types as important factors for the conservation of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Biological Conservation
100:199-205.
• Paredes R, Zavalaga CB, Battistini G, Majluf P, McGill P (2003) Status of the Humboldt Penguin in Peru, 1999-2000. Waterbirds 26:126-138.
• Paredes R, Zavalaga CB, Boness DJ (2002) Patterns of egg laying and breeding success in Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at Punta San Juan, Peru. The Auk 119:244-
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• Schlosser JA, Dubach JM, Garner TWJ, Araya B, Bernal M, Simeone A, Smith KA, Wallace RS (2009) Evidence for gene flow differs from observed dispersal patterns in
Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti. Conservation Genetics 10:839-849.
• Scholten CJ (1999) Iris colour of Humboldt Penguins Spheniscus humboldti. Marine Ornithology 27:187-194.
• Schwartz MK, Boness DJ, Schaeff CM, Majluf P, Perry EA, Fleischer RC (1999) Female-solicited extra-pair matings in Humboldt penguins fail to produce extrapair fertilizations.
Behavioral Ecology 10:242-250.
• Skewgar E, Simeone A, Boersma PD (2009) Marine Reserve in Chile would benefit penguins and ecotourism. Ocean and Coastal Management 52:487-491.
• Simeone A, Araya B, Bernal M, Biebold EN, Grzybowski K, Michaels M, Teare JA, Wallace RS, Willis MJ (2002) Oceanographic and climatic factors influencing breeding and
colony attendance patterns of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in central Chile. Marine Ecology Progress Series 227:43-50.
• Simeone A, Hiriart-Bertrand L, Reyes-Arriagada R, Halpern M, Dubach J, Wallace R, Pütz K, Lüthi B (2009) Heterospecific pairing and hybridization between wild humboldt and
magellanic penguins in Southern Chile. The Condor 111:544-550.
• Simeone A, Luna-Jorquera G, Wilson RP (2004) Seasonal variations in the behavioural thermoregulation of roosting Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in north-central
Chile. Journal of Ornithology 145:35-40.
• Smith KM, Karesh WB, Majluf P, Paredes R, Zavalaga C, Reul AH, Stetter M, Braselton WE, Puche H, Cook RA (2008) Health Evaluation of Free-Ranging Humboldt Penguins
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• Taylor SS, Leonard ML (2001) Foraging trip duration increases for Humboldt Penguins tagged with recording devices. Journal of Avian Biology 32:369-371.
• Taylor SS, Leonard ML, Boness DJ (2001) Aggressive nest intrusions by male Humboldt Penguins. The Condor 103:162-165.
• Taylor SS, Leonard ML, Boness DJ, Majluf P (2002) Foraging by Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) during the chick-rearing period: general patterns, sex differences,
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• Teare JA, Diebold EN, Grzybowski K, Michaels MG, Wallace RS, Willis MJ (1998) Nest site fidelity in Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at Algarrobo, Chile. Penguin
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• UNEP &WCMC (October, 2003) Report on the status and conservation of the Humboldt Penguin. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1:1-13.
• Van Buren AN, Boersma PD (2007) Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in the Northern Hemisphere. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119:284-288.
• Villouta G, Hargreaves R, Rtveros V (1997) Haematological and clinical biochemistry findings in captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Avian Pathology 26:851-
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• Wallace RS, Dubach J, Michaels MG, Keuler NS, Diebold ED, Grzybowski K, Teare JA, Willis MJ (2008) Morphometric Determination of Gender in Adult Humboldt Penguins
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• Weichler T, Garthe S, Luna-Jorquera G, Moraga J (2004) Seabird distribution on the Humboldt Current in northern Chile in relation to hydrography, productivity, and fisheries.
Journal of Marine Science 61:148-154.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 245-249. Print.
• Zavalaga CB, Paredes R (1997) Sex Determination of Adult Humboldt Penguins Using Morphometric Characters. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:102-112.

King
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• Bried J, Jiguet F, Jouventin P (1999) Why do Aptenodytes penguins have high divorce rate? The Auk 116:504-512.
• Cherel Y, Hobson KA, Bailleul F, Groscolas R (2005) Nutrition, Physiology, and Stable Isotopes: New Information from Fasting and Molting Penguins. Ecology 86:2881-2888.
• Cherel Y, Le Maho Y (1985) Five months of fasting in King Penguin chicks: body mass loss and fuel metabolism. American Journal of Physiology 249:387-392.
• Cherel Y, Stahl JC, Le Maho Y (1987) Ecology and Physiology of King Penguin Chicks. The Auk 104:254-262.
• Corbel H, Morlon F, Geiger S, Groscolas R (2009) State-dependent decisions during the fledgling process of king penguin chicks. Animal Behavior 78:829-838.
• Côté S (2000) Aggressiveness in king penguins in relation to reproductive status and territory location. Animal Behaviour 59:813-821.
• Croxall JP (1982) Energy Costs of Incubation and Moult in Petrels and Penguins. Journal or Animal Ecology 51:177-194.
• Culik BM, Pütz K, Wilson RP, Allers D, Lage J, Bost CA, Maho YL (1996) Diving Energetics in King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). The Journal of Experimental Biology
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• Delord K, Barbraud C, Weimerskirch H. (2004) Long-term trends in the population size of king penguins at Crozet Archipelago: environmental variability and density
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• Descamps S, Gauthier-Clerc M, Gendner JP, Le Maho Y (2002) The annual breeding cycke of unbanded king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus on Possession Island (Crozet).
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• Descamps S, Le Bohec C, Le Maho Y, Gendner JP, Gauthier-Clerc M (2009) Relating Demographic Performance to Breeding-Site Location in the King Penguin. The Condor
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• Froget G, Butler PJ, Woakes AJ, Fahlman A, Kuntz G, Le Maho Y, HandrichY (2004) Heart rate and energetics of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Journal
of Experimental Biology 207: 3917–3926.
• Halsey LG, White CR, Fahlman A, Handrich Y, Butler PJ (2007) Onshore energetic in penguins: Theory, estimation and ecological implications. Comparative Biochemistry and
Physiology 147:1009-1014.
• Jouventin P, Capdeville D, Cuenot-Chillet F, Boiteau C (1994) Exploitation of pelagic resources by a non-flying seabird: satellite tracking of the king penguin throughout the
breeding cycle. Marine Ecology Progress Series 106:11-19.
• Kooyman GL, Cherel Y, Le Maho Y, Croxall JP, Thorson PH, Ridoux V, Kooyman CA (1992) Diving Behavior and Energetics During Foraging Cucles in King Penguins.
Ecological Monographs 62:143-163.
• Le Bohec C, Gauthier-Clerc M, Le Maho Y (2005) The adaptive significance of crèches in the king penguin. Animal Behaviour 70:527-538.
• Marion, R. Penguins A Worldwide Guide. 1st ed. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 1999. 32-37. Print.
• Moore GJ, Wienecke B, Robertson G (1999) Seasonal change in foraging areas and dive depths of breeding kind penguins at Heard Island. Polar Biology 21:376-384.
• Olsson O (1996) Seasonal Effects of Timing and Reproduction in the King Penguin: A Unique Breeding Cycle. Journal of Avain Biology 27:7-14.
• Olsson O, Bonnedehl J, Anker-Nilssen P (2001) Mate Switching and Copulation Behavior in King Penguins. Journal of Avian Biology 32:139-145.
• Olsson O, Brodin A (1997) Changes in King Penguin Breeding Cycle in Response to Food Availability. The Condor 99:994-997.
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• Pütz K, Bost CA (1994) Feeding behaviourof free-ranging King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus.Ecology 75:489-497.
• Stonehouse B (1956) The King Penguin of South Georgia. Nature 178:1424-1426.
• Stonehouse, B (1960). “The King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus of South Georgia I. Breeding behaviour and development”. Scientific Report of the Falkland Islands
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• Weimerskirch H, Stahl JC, Jouventin P (1992) The breeding biology and population dynamics of King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus on the Crozet Islands. Ibis 134:107-117.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 143-152. Print.

Little
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• Dann P (1994) The Abundance, Breeding Distribution, and Nest Sites of Blue Penguins in Otago, New Zealand. Notornis 41:157-166.
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• Green JA, Frappel PB, Clark TD, Butler PJ (2008) Predicting rate of oxygen consumption from heart rate while little penguins work, rest and play. Comparative Biochemistry and
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• Heber S, Wilson KJ, Molles L (2008) Breeding biology and breeding success of the blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) on the West Coast of New Zealand’s South Island. New
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• Hocken AG (2000) Cause of death on blue penguins (Eudyptula m. minor) in North Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27:305-309.
• Hocken AG (2000) Internal organ weights of the blue penguin Eudyptula minor. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27:299-304.
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• Hoskins AJ, Dann P, Ropert-Coudert, Kato A, Chiaradia A, Costa DP, Arnould JPY (2008) Foraging behaviour and habitat selection of the little penguin Eudyptula minor during
early chick rearing in Bass Strait, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 366:293-303.
• Hull CL, Hindell MA, Gales RP, Meggs RA, Moyle DI, Brothers NP (1998) The efficacy of translocating little penguins Eudyptula minor during an oil spill. Biological
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• Kato A, Ropert-Coudert Y, Chiaradia A (2008) Regulation of trip duration by an inshore forager, the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor), during incubation. The Auk 125:588-593.
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• Miyazaki M, Waas JR (2003) Acoustic properties of male advertisement and their impact on female responsiveness in little penguins Eudyptula minor. Journal of Avian Biology
34:229-232.
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• Peucker AJ, Dann P, Burridge CP (2009) Range-Wide Phylogeography of the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor): Evidence of Long-Distance Dispersal. The Auk 126:397-408.
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• Rogers T, Knight C (2006) Burrow and Mate Fidelity in the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor at Lion Island, New South Wales, Australia. Ibis 148:801-806.
• Ropert-Coudert Y, Chiaradia A, Kato A (2006) An exceptionally deep dive by a Little Penguin Eudyptula minor. Marine Ornithology 34:71-74.
• Sidhu LA, Catchpole EA, Dann P (2007) Mark-Recapture-Recovery Modeling and Age-Related Survival in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor). The Auk 124:815-827.
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Macaroni
• Bernstein NP, Tirrell PC (1981) New Southerly Record for the Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) on the Antarctic Peninsula. The Auk 98:398-399.
• Boersma D. “Macaroni Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Bost CA, Thiebot JB, Pinaud D, Cherel Y, Trathan PN (2009) Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the
macaroni penguin. Biology Letters 5:473-476.
• Brown CR (1987) Traveling Speed and Foraging Range of Macaroni and Rockhopper Penguins at Marion Island. Journal of Field Ornithology 58:118-125.
• Cherel Y, Hobson KA (2007) Geographical variation in carbon stable isotope signatures of marine predators: a tool to investigate their foraging areas in the Southern Ocean.
Marine Ecology Progress Series 329: 281-287.
• Cherel Y, Hobson KA, Guinet C, Vanpe C (2007) Stable isotopes document seasonal changes in trophic niches and winter foraging individual specialization in diving predators
from the Southern Ocean. Journal of Animal Ecology 76:826-836.
• Clark BD, Bemis W (1979) Kinematics of swimming penguins at the Detroit Zoo. Journal of Zoology London 188:411-428.
• Cresswell KA, Wiedenmann J, Mangel M (2008) Can Macaroni Penguins Keep up with Climate- and Fishing-Induced Changes in Krill? Polar Biology 31:641-649.
• Croxall JP, Davis RW, O’Connell MJ (1988) Diving Patterns in Relation to Diet of Gentoo and Macaroni at South Georgia. The Condor 90:157-167.
• Davis RW, Croxall JP, O’Connell MJ (1989) The Reproductive Energetics of Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and Macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus) Penguins at South Georgia.
Journal of Animal Ecology 58:59-74.
• Davis, L. S., and M. Renner. 2003. Penguins. Yale University Press, New Haven. 212 pages.
• Dobson SF, Jouventin P (2003) Use of the Nest Site as a Rendezvous in Penguins. Waterbirds 26:409-415.
• Green JA, Butler PJ, Woakes AJ, Boyd IL (2002) Energy requirements of female Macaroni Penguins breeding at South Georgia. Functional Ecology 16: 671-681.
• Green JA, Butler PJ, Woakes AJ, Boyd IL (2003) Energetics of diving macaroni penguins. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 206:43-57.
• Green JA, Butler PJ, Woakes AJ, Boyd IL (2004) Energetics of the moult fast in female macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus. Journal of Avian Biology 35:153-161.
• Green JA, Williams R, Green MG (1998) Foraging ecology and diving behaviour of Macaroni Penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus at Heard Island. Marine Ornithology 26:27-34.
• Green JA, Wilson RP, Boyd IL, Woakes AJ, Green CJ, Butler PJ (2009) Tracking macaroni penguins during long foraging trips using ‘Behavioural geolocation’. Polar Biology
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• Green JA, White CR, Butler PJ (2005) Allometric estimation of metabolic rate from heart rate in penguins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 142:478-484.
• Lynnes AS, Reid K, Croxall JP (2004) Diet and reproductive success of Adélie and chinstrap penguins: linking response of predators to prey population dynamics. Polar Biology
27: 544-554.
• Lynnes AS, Reid K, Croxall JP, Trathan PN (2002) Conflict or co-existence? Foraging distribution and competition for prey between Adélie and chinstrap penguins. Marine
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• Oehler DA, Pelikan S, Fry WR, Weakley Jr. L, Kusch A, Marin M (2008) Status of Crested Penguin (Eudyptes spp.) Populations on Three Islands in Southern Chile. The Wilson
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• Ropert-Coudert Y, Kato A, Wilson RP, Kurita M (2002) Short Underwater Opening of the Beak Following Immersion in Seven Penguin Species. The Condor 104:444-448.
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• Williams TD, Rodwell S (1992) Annual Variation in Return Rate, Mate and Nest-Site Fidelity in Breeding Gentoo and Macaroni Penguins. The Condor 94:636-645.
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• Williams AJ, Siegfried WR, Burger AE, Berruti A (1977) Body composition and energy metabolism of moulting eudyptid penguins. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 56: 27-30.
• Woehler, E.J. (1993) The distribution and abundance of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic penguins. Cambridge: Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research.
• Wyk JCP (1995) Unusually coloured penguins at Marion Island, 1993-1994. Marine Ornithology 23:58-60.

Magellanic
• Akst EP, Boersma PD, Fleischer RC (2002) A comparison of genetic diversity between the Galápagos Penguin and the Magellanic Penguin. Conservation Genetics 3:375-383.
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• Boersma PD, Rebstock GA, Frere E, Moore SE (2009) Following the fish: penguins and productivity in the South Atlantic. Ecological Monographs 79:59-76.
• Boersma PD, Rebstock GA, Stokes DL (2004) Why Penguin Eggshells are Thick. The Auk 121:148-155.
• Boersma PD, Stokes DL, Yorio PM (1990) Reproductive variability and historical change of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at Punta Tombo, Argentina. In:
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• Borboroglu PG, Boersma PD, Ruoppolo V, Reyes L, Rebstock GA, Griot K, Heredia SR, Adornes AC, de Silva RP (2006) Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the
Southwest Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:193-198.
• Borboroglu PG, Yurio P, Boersma PD, Valle HD, Bertellotti M (2002) Habitat Use and Breeding Distribution of Magellanic Penguins in Northern San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia,
Argentina. The Auk 119:233-239.
• Bouzat JL, Walker BG, Boersma PD (2009) Regional genetic structure in the Magellanic Penguin(Spheniscus magellanicus) suggests metapopulation dynamics. The Auk 126:326-
334.
• Clausen AP, Pütz K (2002) Recent trends in diet composition and productivity of Gentoo, Magellanic and Rockhopper Penguins in the Falkland Islands. Aquatic Conservation:
Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12:51-61.
• Fonseca VSDS, Petry MV, Jost AH (2001) Diet of Magellanic Penguin on the Coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Waterbirds 24:290-293.
• Forero MG, Tella JL, Hobson KA, Bertellotti M, Blanco G (2002) Conspecific food competition explains variability in colony size: A test in Magellanic Penguins. Ecology
83:3466-3475.
• Fowler Gs (1999) Behavioral and hormonal responses of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) to tourism and nest site visitation. Biological Conservation 90:143-149.
• Frere E, Gandini P, Boersma PD (1992) Effects of nest type and location on reproductive success of the Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus. Marine Ornithology 20:1-6.
• Green JA, Boyd IL, Woakes AJ, Green CJ, Butler PJ (2005) Do seasonal changes in metabolic rate facilitate changes in diving behaviour?. The Journal of Experimental Biology
208:2581-2593.
• Otley HM, Clausen AP, Christie DJ, Pütz K (2004) Aspects of the Breeding Biology of the Magellanic Penguin in the Falkland Islands. Waterbirds 27:396-405.
• Peters G, Wilson RP, Scolaro A, Laurenti S, Upton J, Galleli H (1998) The Diving Behavior of Magellanic Penguins at Punta Norte, Peninsula Valdes, Argentina. Colonial
Waterbirds 21: 1-10
• Pinto MBLC, Siciliano S, Beneditto APM (2007) Stomach Contents of the Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus from the Northern distribution limit on the Atlantic coast
of Brazil. Marine Ornithology 35:77-78.
• Potti J, Moreno J, Yorio P, Briones V, Borboroglu PG, Villar S, Ballesteros C (2002) Bacteria divert resources from growth for magellanic penguin chicks. Ecology Letters 5:709-
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• Pütz K, Schiavini A, Rey AR, Lüthi BH (2007) Winter migration of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from the southernmost distributional range. Marine Biology
152:1227-1235.
• Radl A, Culik BM (1999) Foraging behaviour and reproductive success in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus): a comparative study of two colonies in southern Chile.
Marine Biology 133:381-393.
• Rafferty NE, Boersma PD, Rebstock GA (2005) Intraclutch egg-size variation in Magellanic Penguins. The Condor 107:921-926.
• Renison D, Boersma D, Martella M (2003) Fighting in female Magellanic Penguins: When, Why, and Who Wins?. Wilson Bull 115:58-63.
• Renison D, Boersma D, Martella M (2002) Winning and losing: causes for variability in outcome of fights in male Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Behavioral
Ecology 13:462-466.
• Renison D, Boersma PD, Van Buren AN, Martella MB (2006) Agonistic behavior in wild male Magellanic penguins: when and how do they interact?. Journal of Ethology 24:189-
193.
• Scolaro JA, Hall MA, Ximénez IM (1983) The Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus): Sexing Adults by Discriminant Analysis of Morphometric Characters. The Auk
100:221-224.
• Scolaro JA, Suburo AM (1995) Timing and duration of foraging trips in Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus. Marine Ornithology 23:231-235.
• Simeone A, Hiriart-Bertrand L, Reyes-Arriagada R, Halpern M, Dubach J, Wallace R, Pütz K, Lüthi B (2009) Heterospecific pairing and hybridization between wild Humboldt
and Magllanic Penguins in Southern Chile. The Condor 111:544-550.
• Simeone A, Wilson RP (2003) In-depth studies of Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) foraging: can we estimate prey consumption by perturbations in the dive
profile?. Marine Biology 143:825-831.
• Stokes DL, Boersma PD (1999) Where breeding Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus forage: satellite telemetry results and their implications for penguin conservation.
Marine Ornithology 27:59-65.
• Stokes DL, Boersma PD (2000) Nesting density and reproductive success in a colonial seabird, the Magellanic Penguin. Ecology 81:2878-2891.
• Takahashi A, Dunn MJ, Trathan PN, Croxall JP, Wilson RP, Sato K, Naito Y (2004) Krill-feeding behavior in a Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) compared with fisheating
in Magellani Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus): A pilot study. Marine Ornithology 32:47-54.
• Walker BG, Boersma PD (2003) Diving behavior of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at Punta Tombo, Argentina. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1471-1483.
• Walker BG, Boersma PD, Wingfield JC (2005) Field Endocrinology and Conservation Biology. Integrative Comparative Biology 45:12-18.
• Walker BG, Boersma PD, Wingfield JC (2006) Habituation of Adult Magellanic Penguins to Human Visitation as Expressed through Behavior and Corticosterone Secretion.
Conservation Biology 20:146-154
• Walker BG, Boersma PD, Wingfield JC (2005) Physiological and Behavioral Differences in Magellanic Penguin Chicks in Undisturbed and Tourist-Visited Locations of a Colony.
Conservation Biology 19:1571-1577.
• Walker BG, Boersma PD, Wingfield JC (2004) Physiological condition in Magellanic Penguins: Does it matter if you have to walk a long way to your nest?. The Condor 106:696-
701.
• Walker BG, Wingfield JC, Boersma PD (2005) Age and Food Deprivation Affects Expression of the Glucocorticosteroid Stress Response in Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus
magellanicus ) Chicks. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 78:78-89.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 249-258. Print.
• Wilson RP (1996) Foraging and feeding behaviour of a fledgling Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus. Marine Ornithology 24:55-56.
• Wilson RP, Jackson S, Straten MT (2007) Rate of food consumption in free-living Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus. Marine Ornithology 35:109-111.
• Wilson RP, Kreye JM, Lucke K, Urquhart H (2004) Antennae on transmitters on penguins: balancing energy budgets on the high wire. The Journal of Experimental Biology
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• Wilson RP, Liebsch N (2003) Up-beat motion in swinging limbs: new insight into assessing movement in free-living aquatic vertebrates. Marine Biology 142:537-547.
• Wilson RP, Scolaro JA, Grémillet D, Kierspel MAM, Laurenti S, Upton J, Gallelli H, Quintana F, Frere E, Müller G, Straten MT, Zimmer I (2005) How Do Magellanic Penguins
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• Wilson RP, Scolaro JA, Quintana F, Siebert U, thor Straten M, Mills K, Zimmer I, Liebsch N, Steinfurth A, Spindler G, Müller G (2004) To the bottom of the heart: cloacal
movement as an index of cardiac frequency, respiration and digestive evacuation in penguins. Marine Biology 144:813-827.
• Yorio P, Borboroglu PG, Potti J, Moreno J (2001) Breeding biology of Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus at Golfo San Jorge, Patagonia, Argentina. Marine
Ornithology 29:75-79.

Rockhopper
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• Clausen AP, Huin N (2003) Status and Numerical Trends of King, Gentoo, and ROckhopper Penguins Breeding in the Falkland Islands. Waterbirds 26:389-402.
• Clausen AP, Putz K. (2002). Recent trends in diet composition and productivity of gentoo, magellanic and rockhopper penguins in the Falkland Islands. Aquatic Conservation
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• de Dinechin M, Ottvall R,Quillfeldt P, Jouventin P (2009) Speciation chronology of rockhopper penguins inferred from molecular, geological and palaeoceanographic data.
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21:222-228.
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• Hull CL, Hindell M, Le Mar K, Scofield P, Wilson J, Lea MA (2004) The breeding biology and factors affecting reproductive success in rockhopper penguins Eudyptes
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• Jackson AL, Bearhop S, Thompson DR (2005) Shape can influence the rate of colony fragmentation in ground nesting seabirds. Oikos 111:473-478.
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• Kirkwood R, Lawton K, Moreno C, Valencia J, Schlatter R, Robertson G (2007) Estimates of Southern Rockhopper and Macaroni Penguins Numbers at the Ildefonso and Diego
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• Lamey TC (1993) Territorial aggression, timing of egg loss, and egg size differences in rockhopper penguins, Eudyptes c. chrysocome, on New Island, Falkland Islands. Oikos
66:293-297.
• Liljesthröm M, Emslie SD, Frierson D, Schiavini A (2008) Avian predation at a Southern Rockhopper Penguin colony on Staten Island, Argentina. Polar Biology 31:465-474.
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• Oehler DA, Pelikan S, Fry WR, Weakley Jr. L, Kusch A, Marin M (2008) Status of Crested Penguin (Eudyptes spp.) Populations on Three Islands in Southern Chile. The Wilson
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• Poisbleau M, Demongin L, Angelier F, Dano S, Lacroix A, Quillfeldt P (2009) What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing
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• Poisbleau M, Demongin L, Stranfe IJ, Otley H, Quillfeldt P (2008) Polar Biology 31:925-932.
• Pütz K, Clausen AP, Huin N, Croxall JP (2003) Re-evaluation of Historical Rockhopper Penguin Population Data in the Falkland Islands. Waterbirds 26:169-175.
• Pütz K, Rey AR, Huin N, Schiavini A, Pütz A, Lüthi BH (2006) Diving characteristics of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes c. chrysocome) in the southwest Atlantic.
Marine Biology 149:125-137.
• Pütz K, Rey AR, Schiavini A, Clausen AP, Lüthi BH (2006) Winter migration of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes c. chrysocome) breeding in the Southwest Atlantic: is utilisation
of different foraging areas reflected in opposing population trends?. Polar Biology 29:735-744.
• Rey AR, Pütz K, Luna-Jorquera G, Lüthi B, Schiavini A (2009) Diving patterns of breeding female rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome): Noir Island, Chile. Polar Biology
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• Rey AR, Schiavini A (2005) Inter-annual variation in the diet of female southern rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) at Tierra del Fuego. Polar Biology
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• Searby A, Jouventin P (2005) The double vocal signature of crested penguins: is the identity coding system of rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome due to phylogeny or
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• St. Clair CC (1996) Multiple Mechanisms of Reversed Hatching Asynchrony in Rockhopper Penguins. Journal of Animal Ecology 65:485-494.
• Tremblay Y, Cherel Y (2000) Benthic and pelagic dives: a new foraging behaviour in rockhopper penguins. Marine Ecology Progress Series 204:257-267.
• Triggs L, Boersma D. “Northern Rockhopper Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Warham J (1963) The Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome, at Macquarie Island. The Auk 80:229-256.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 185-194. Print.

Royal

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Physiology 147:1009-1014.
• Holmes ND (2007) Comparing King, Gentoo, and Royal Penguin Responses to Pedestrian Visitation. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2575-2582.
• Holmes ND, Giese M, Kriwoken LK (2005) Testing the minimum approach distance guidelines for incubation Royal penguins Eudyptes schlegeli. Biological Conservation
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• Hull CL (2000) Comparative diving behaviour and segregation of the marine habitat by breeding Royal penguins, Eudyptes schlegeli, and eastern Rockhopper Penguins, Eudyptes
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• Hull CL (1999) Comparison of the diets of breeding royal (Eudyptes schlegeli) and rockhopper (Eudyptes chrysocome) penguins on Macquarie Island over three years.
• Hull CL (1997) The Effect of Carrying Devices on Breeding Royal Penguins. The Condor 99:530-534.
• Hull CL, Hindell MA, Michael K (1997) Foraging zones of royal penguins during the breeding season, and their association with oceanographic features. Marine Ecology Progress
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• Hull CL, Wilson J (1996) Location of Colonies in Royal Penguins Eudyptes schlegeli:Potential Costs and Consequences for Breeding Success. Emu 96:135-138.
• Hull CL, Wilson J (1996) The effect of investigators on the breeding success of royal, Eudyptes schlegeli, and rockhopper penguins, E. chrysocome, at Macquarie Island. Polar
Biology 16:335-337.
• Hull CL, Wilson J, le Mar K (2001) Moult in adult Royal Penguins, Eudyptes schlegeli. Emu 101:173-176.
• Kooyman GL (2002) Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects of Some Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Penguin Distributions. Oecologia 130:485-495.
• Marchant S, Higgins PJ (1990) Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, Vol.1. Melbourne, Oxford University Press.
• Shaughnessy PD (1970) Ontogeny of haemoglobin in the royal penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus schlegeli. Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 24:425-428.
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• St. Clair CC, Waas JR, St. Clair RC, Boag PT (1995) Unfit mothers? Maternal infanticide in royal penguins. Animal Behavior 50:1177-1185.
• Waas JR, Caulfield M, Colgan PW, Boag PT (2000) Colony sound facilitates sexual and agonistic activities in royal penguins. Animal Behaviour 60:77-84.
• Warham J (1971) Aspects of breeding behaviour in the Royal Penguin. Notornis18: 91-115.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 220-224. Print.

Snares-Crested
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• Beverly, Paul. Implementation of the Marine Protected Areas Policy in the Territorial Seas of the Subantarctic Biogeographic Region of New Zealand. New Zealand. Subantarctic
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• Croxall JP (1982) Energy Costs of Incubation and Moult in Petrels and Penguins. Journal or Animal Ecology 51:177-194.
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• Davis LS, Darby JT (1988) First International Conference on Penguins: Abstracts of Presented Papers and Posters. Cormorant 16:120-137.
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• Massaro M, Davis LS (2005) Differences in egg size, shell thickness, pore density, pore diameter and water vapour conductance between first and second eggs of Snares Penguins
Eudyptes robustus and their influence on hatching asynchrony. Ibis 147:251-258.
• Massaro M, Davis LS (2004) Preferential incubation positions for different sized eggs and their influence on incubation period and hatching asynchrony in Snares crested
(Eudyptes robustus) and the yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56:426-434.
• Mattern, T. (2006). Marine ecology of offshore and inshore foraging penguins: the Snares penguin Eudyptes robustus and Yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes. Ph.D.
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• McGraw KJ, Massaro M, Rivers TJ, Mattern T (2009) Annual, sexual, size- and condition-related variation in the colour and fluorescent pigment content of yellow crest-feathers
in Snares Penguins (Eudyptes robustus). Emu 109:93-99.
• Miskelly CM, Bell M (2004) An unusual influx of Snares Crested Penguins (Eudyptes robustus) on the Chatham Islands, with a review of other crested penguin records from the
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• Miskelly CM, Bester AJ, Bell M (2006) Additions to the Chatham Islands’ bird list, with further records of vagrant and colonising bird species. Notornis 53:213–228.
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• Stonehouse B (1971) The Snares Island Penguin Eudyptes Robustus. Ibis 113:1-7.
• Warham J (1974) The Breeding Biology and Behaviour of the Snares Crested Penguin. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 4:63-108.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 200-206. Print.

Yellow-Eyed

• Alexander RR, Shields DW (2003) Using land as a control variable in density-dependent bioeconomic models. Ecological Modelling 170:193-201.
• Boessoenkool S, Kning TM, Seddon PJ, Waters JM (2008) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes). Molecular
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for Biological Diversity. Joshua Tree, CA. 2006. Print.
• Darby JT, Dawson SM (2000) Bycatch of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) in gillnets in New Zealand waters 1979-1997. Biological Conservation 93: 327-332.
• Edge KA, Jamieson IG, Darby JT (1999) Parental investment and the management of an endangered penguin. Biological Conservation 88:367-378.
• Efford M, Darby J, Spencer N (1996) Population studies of yellow-eyed penguins, 1992094 progress report. Department of Conservation. Wellington, New Zealand.
• Ellenberg U, Mattern T, Seddon PJ (2009) Habituation potential of the yellow-eyed penguins depends on sex, character and previous experience with humans. Animal Behaviour
77:289-296.
• Ellenburg U, Setiawan AN, Cree A, Houston DM, Seddon PJ (2007) Elevated hormonal response and reduced reproductive output in Yellow-eyed penguins exposed to
unregulated tourism. Genreal and Comparative Endocrinology 152:54-63.
• Ellis S (1999) The Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan: a description of the process. Marine Ornithology 27:163-169.
• Hubert L, Boersma D. “Yellow-Eyed Penguin.” The Penguin Project. Penguin Sentinels, 2009. Web. 28 Oct 2010. .
• Lalas C, Jones PR, Jones J (1999) The design and use of a nest box for Yellow-eyed Penguins Megadyptes antipodes – a response to a conservation need. Marine Ornithology
27:199-204.
• Lalas C, Ratz H, McEwan K, McConkey S (2007) Predation by New Zealand sealions (Phocarctos hookeri) as a threat to the viability of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes
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• Massaro M, Darby JT, Davis LS, Edge KA, Hazel MJ (2002) Investigation of Interacting Effects of Female Age, Laying Dates, and Egg Size in Yellow-eyed Penguins
(Megadyptes antipodes). The Auk 199:1137-1141.
• Massaro M, Davis LS (2004) Preferential incubation positions for different sized eggs and their influence on incubation period and hatching asynchrony in Snares crested
(Eudyptes robustus) and the yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56:426-434.
• Massaro M, Davis LS (2004) The influence of laying date and maternal age on eggshell thickness and pore density in Yellow-eyed Penguins. The Condor 106:496-505.
• Massaro M, Davis LS, Darby JT (2003) Cartenoid-derived ornaments reflect parental quality in male and female yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes). Behavioral
Ecology and Sociobiology 55:169-175.
• Massaro M, Davis LS, Darby JT, Robertson GJ, Setiawan AN (2004) Intraspecific variation of incubation periods in Yellow0eyed Penguins Megadyptes antipodes: testing the
influence of age, laying date and egg size. Ibis 146:526-530.
• Massaro M, Davis LS, Davidson RS (2006) Plasticity of brood patch development and its influence on incubation periods in the yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes: an
experimental approach. Journal of Avian Biology 37:497-506.
• Massaro M, Setiawan AN, Davis LS (2007) Effects of artificial eggs on prolactin secreation, steroid levels, brood patch development, incubation onset and clutch size in the
yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes). General and Comparative Endocrinology 151:220-229.
• McKay E, Lalas R, McKay C, McConkey S (1999) Nest-site selection by Yellow-eyed Penguins Megadyptes antipodes on grazed farmland. Marine Ornithology 27:29-35.
• McKinlay B. Hoiho (Megadyptes antipodes) Recovery Plan:2000-2025. Department of Conservation. Wellington, New Zealand. 2001. Print
• Moore PJ (1999) Foraging range of Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes. Marine Ornithology 27:49-58.
• Moore PJ, Wakelin MD (1997) Diet of Yellow-eyed Penguin Megadyptes antipodes, South Island, New Zealand, 1991-1992. Marine Ornithology 25: 17-29.
• Ratz H, Thompson C (1999) Who is watching whom? Check for impacts of tourists on Yellow-eyed Penguins Megadyptes antipode. Marine Ornithology 27:205-210.
• Reid WV (1988) Age Correlations within Pairs of Breeding Birds. The Auk 105:278-285.
• Richdale LE (1947) Seasonal Fluctuations in Weights of Penguins and Petrels. The Wilson Bulletin 59:160-171.
• Richdale LE (1949) The Effect of Age on Laying Dates, Size of Eggs, and Size of Clutch in the Yellow-Eyed Penguin. The Wilson Bulletin 61:91-98.
• Seddon PJ, Seddon RJ (1991) Chromosome analysis and sex identification of Yellow-eyed Penguins. Marine Ornithology 19:144-147.
• Setiawan AN, Darby JT, Lambert DM (2004) The Use of Morphometric Characteristics to Sex Yellow-Eyed Penguins. Waterbirds 27:96-101., Wakelin M, Douglas ME,
McKinlay B, Nelson D, Murphy B (1995) Yellow-Eyed Penguin Foraging Study, South-Eastern New Zealand. 1991-1993. Science and Research Series No. 83. Department of
Conservation, New Zealand.
• Setiawan AN, Massaro M, Darby JT, Davis LS (2005) Mate and Territory Retention in Yellow-Eyed Penguins. The Condor 107:703-709.
• Van Heezik Y (1990) Patterns and Variability of Growth in the Yellow-Eyed Penguins. The Condor 92:904-912.
• Williams, Tony D. The Penguins. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 225-230. Print.

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